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Sep 19, 2009 by


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Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for survival and reproduction of all animals. The pathways that regulate gonadal steroidogenesis are therefore conserved among animals from the steroidogenic enzymes to the intracellular signaling molecules and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the activity of these enzymes. Regulation of fish ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by gonadotropin (GtH) and GPCRs revealed interaction between adenylate cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and also MAP kinase pathway. Recent studies revealed another important pathway in GtH-induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis: cross talk between GPCRs and membrane receptor tyrosine kinases. Gonadotropin binding to G?s-coupled membrane receptor in fish ovary leads to production of cAMP which in turn trans-activate the membrane-bound epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is followed by activation of ERK1/2 signaling that promotes steroid production. Interestingly, GtH-induced trans-activation of EGFR in the fish ovary uniquely requires matrix-metalloproteinase-mediated release of EGF. Inhibition of these proteases blocks GtH-induced steroidogenesis. Increased cAMP production in fish ovarian follicle upregulate follicular cyp19a1a mRNA expression and aromatase activity leading to increased biosynthesis of 17?-estradiol (E2). Evidence for involvement of SF-1 protein in inducing cyp19a1a mRNA and aromatase activity has also been demonstrated. In addition to GtH, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin can alone induced steroidogenesis in fish ovary. In intact follicles and isolated theca cells, IGF-I and insulin had no effect on GtH-induced testosterone and 17a,hydroxysprogeaterone production. GtH-stimulated E2 and 17,20bdihydroxy-4-pregnane 3-one production in granulosa cells however, was significantly increased by IGF-I and insulin. Both IGF-I and insulin mediates their signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases leading to activation of PI3 kinase/Akt and MAP kinase. These kinase signals then activates steroidogenic enzymes which promotes steroid production. PI3 kinase, therefore considered to be an initial component of the signal transduction pathways which precedes MAP kinase in IGF-1 and insulininduced steroidogenesis in fish ovary. Thus, investigation on the mechanism of signal transduction regulating fish ovarian steroidogenesis have shown that multiple, apparently independent signal transduction pathways are needed to convey the message of single hormone or growth factor. testosterone.

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The present study was the first time to investigate the effects of celastrol, derived from Trypterygium wilfordii Hook F. (“Thunder of God Vine”), a traditional Chinese medicine plant, on the metabolism of model probe substrates of CYP isoforms, CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A2, which are important in the metabolism of a variety of xenobiotics. The effects of celastrol on CYP1A2 (phenacetin O-deethylase), CYP2C11 (tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan O-demethylation), CYP2E1 (chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase) and CYP3A2 (testosterone 6?-hydroxylase) activities were investigated using rat liver microsomes. HPLC-DAD was used to measure the model substrates and metabolites. Inhibition of rat CYP isoforms (IC50) by celastrol in potency order was CYP2C11 (10.2 ?M)>CYP3A2 (23.2 ?M)>CYP1A2 (52.8 ?M)>CYP2E1 (74.2 ?M)>CYP2D6 (76.4 ?M). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that the celastrol was not only a competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2 and 2C11, but also a mixed-type inhibitor of CYP3A2, with Ki of 39.2 ?M, 7.05 ?M and 14.2 ?M, respectively. The data indicate that celastrol inhibited the metabolism of CYP1A2, 2C and 3A substrates in rat liver in vitro with a different mode of inhibition. These in vitro studies of celastrol with CYP isoforms may be helpful for the development and application of celastrol as a promising anti-cancer agent. Further systematic studies in humans in vitro and in vivo are needed to identify the interactions of celastrol with cytochrome P450s. testosterone.

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From day 4 of the first oestrous cycle to day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts (n?=?3) were injected with testosterone (T), while control gilts (n?=?3) received corn oil. testosterone.

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SMP-028 is a new compound for treatment of asthma. Oral administration of SMP-028 to rats was associated with toxicological events in endocrine organs. These events mainly consisted of pathological changes in the adrenal gland, testis, prostate, seminal vesicle, ovaries, and uterus. In this study, we set to clarify whether SMP-028 inhibits steroidogenesis in primary culture cells obtained from rat endocrine organs in vitro. Adrenal cells, testicular cells, and ovarian cells were treated with SMP-028 and the production of steroid hormones, i.e., progesterone, aldosterone, corticosterone, total testosterone, and estradiol from these cells was measured by radioimmunoassay. We found that the production of progesterone from these cells treated with SMP-028 at 1 ?M decreased to 16-67% that of the control. These findings indicate that SMP-028 inhibits steroidogenesis in rat endocrine organs in vitro. Considering that free maximum concentration in rats treated with SMP-028 are higher than the IC50 values for the inhibition of steroidogenesis in vitro, it is therefore believed that the toxicological events seen in rats following treatment with SMP-028 are due to inhibition of steroidogenesis in vivo. testosterone.

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There is a growing scientific literature base regarding the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of hypertension and BP control; however, the majority of these studies have been performed exclusively in males, despite the fact that both men and women develop hypertension. There is increasing evidence that although T cells also mediate BP in females, there are distinct differences in both the T-cell profile and the functional impact of sex differences in T cells on cardiovascular health, although more work is needed to better define the relative impact of different T-cell subtypes on BP in both sexes. testosterone.

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